Article: Armenian Coins
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Armenia: First Among Nations


Black Sea Flood c. 5600 BC
Noah coin—Apamea
Dispersal of Black Sea People
Bible—Ham, Shem, Japheth
End of Neolithic to Chalcolithic
       Agriculture with irrigation
       Animal husbandry
       Copper metallurgy

Armenia highlands—ancient Kingdoms of Hittite , Mitanni , Urartu-Yerevan 728BC

Rise of Armenian Empire (190BC-428AD) and Decline of the Seleucid Empire

End of Seleucid Empire---just Syria , independence 190BC

Tigranes the Great 95-66BC—almost all of Asia minor ( Turkey )
Coin-Armenian crown (Parthian) Tyche of Antioch/river Orontes
Coin- with Nike
Coin- with cornucopia
Coin grandson Artaxias II 34-20BC, father killed by Mark Anthony
Became Buffer state between Rome and Parthia
Pompey pushes Tigranes back from coast 66BC
Mark Anthony defeats Artavasdes 34BC, gives country to Cleopatra
Son of Cleopatra and Mark Anthony Helios, ruler of Armenia 34-20BC
Greater Armenia fractures into a number of minor kingdoms—Commagene, Sophene, Cilicia, Syria,
Osrhoene, Gordyene, Adiabene, Media Atropatene, Kolchis, Albania, Iberia, Commagene (Titus)
Christian Armenia—First Christian nation
Conversion of Tiridates by St. Bartholomew and Jude Thaddeus (c.50-68)
Graves still there
Bartholomew flayed alive
Jude Thaddeus—patron of lost causes
Under-Rome, a buffer state with Parthians
Trajan— Eurphrates , Armenia , Tigris
Hadrian—Camosata, Commagene
Marcus Aurelius—Armenicus, Parthicus— Armenia
Philip I --Zeugma— Temple to Zeus with grove of trees
Philip II—Camosata, Commagene—Tyche above Pegasus
Hannibalianus— Euphrates
Parthians 238BC-226AD—map
Battle of Carrhae, 53 BC—defeat of Crassus, legions to China , standards
       returned by Augustus

Phraates IV 38-2BC, rev. archer—1 of 3 wisemen?
       Azes II Bactria , Orodes of Elymais, Aretas IV Nabataea
Sassanians 226-651AD map—continues as buffer state, divided 428AD
Khusroe II 590-628 AD, rev. fire altar attendants
Arab Conquest 632-750AD-map
Arab-Byzantine coins
       Constans stands with cross, Arabic/M
        Heraclius and sons/M arabic
Coin— There is no God but All, alone/Mohammed is the prophet of Allah
Abd al-Malik 646-705
       Standing caliph coin, sword on steps
       Dome of the Rock
       Slaughter of Armenian nobles 705 in church
Byzantine Empire 400-1458-map
continues as buffer state, 884-1041 “independent,” then province 1041
Theodora mosaic
Icon holy Mother and saints
Leo the Armenian coin—many Byzantine emperors Armenian blood
Crusaders 1099
Map of kingdoms
Coin-Bohemund III-helmeted head/cross-1163-1201
Coin-Anonymous 14th C. Eagle/Sarai al-Jedid  
Armenia destroyed by nomad Turks and Mongols 1220-14th century
Cilician Armenia 1198-1375
Gregory the Illuminator 257-331 AD
Akhtamar Church 915-921
Armenian nobles move to Taurus Mts. Invitation of Byzantine gov. 1080 AD \

Levon I 1198-1219 by Pope, HRE, and Byzantine Emperor
Conflict over Antioch with Crusaders
Hetoum I 1226-1270 --Daughter Zabels, 2nd husband
Peace with Seljuks, alliance with Mongols
Vs. Mamluks—had to surrender territory
Levon II 1270-1289
With Mongols defeat Mamluks 1274, then lose 1281—
Mongols not stick around no pasturage
Hetoum II 1289-1293, 1295-1296, 1301-1305
5 sons all kings
4 daughters married crusaders king, princes, Byzantine emperor
93-95 monastery, brother Toros ruled no coins
96-01 Constantinople , son Smpad ruled after coup
Levon III 1301-1307
With Mongols vs. Mamluks, 2 victories, then defeat
Murdered by Mongol general, killed by Great Khan
Oshin 1308-1320
Destroys Mamluk army 1320
Levon IV 1320-1342
Tribute to Mamluks, union with Rome causes assassination
Gosdantin IV 1362-1373
Levon IV no heirs—cousin Guy robs and killed—Catholic
Gos III and IV also assassinated as Catholic as Mamluks advance
Levon V 1374-1375
Elected from Cyprus , Catholic, captured by Mamluks, released, last
       king of Cilician Armenia, several claimants minted coins
Mamluks 1250-1517 ( Egypt ) –map
Fal—al-Nasir 1310-1341
Fal—al-Nasir 1310-1341  
Safavid Persian Empire 1501-1722 map
Dirhem— Sulayman I 1666-1694  
Seljuks Empire map–11-13th C.--first Turks 11th-13th AD
Anatolia Map
Seljuks and Artuqids—figural bronzes—
       Saladin’s funeral
       2-headed eagle
Black and White Sheep Turks—13th-15th AD
Black Sheeps conquered 1469, Jahan Shah 1437-1467
Ottomans Turks 1299-1928 map
Divide Armenia with Persia
Ottoman acheh-Bayezid II 1451-1481
1915 genocide sign
Soldiers of genocide
Mass grave
Abdul Hamid “the Great Asasssins, assassination of Turks through 1960s
5 para 1842-1918
Russia 1829-1918
Russian vs. Ottoman and Persian Empires
Eastern Armenia part of Russian 1829
Europe stops Russia’s advance and conquering Ottoman Empire
Transcaucasian Federation-Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan-1918
10,000,000 note-Arabic, Armenian, Georgian, Russian
250,000,000 note
Transcaucasian Railway, 250,000 ruble note
Armenia 1918-1920
250 ruble note
100 ruble note
Soviet Armenia 1921-1991-map
1988 earthquake-3 rubles
1990 Matendarin Book Depository, 3 rubles
1991-David Sasunsky statue-10th C. folk hero, last circulating Soviet coin
Armenia 1991-map comparing Greater Armenia
500 dram Tigranes coin/Ararat
500 dram open book
100 note-Victor Hambartsumyan/Observatory
50 note-Composer Aram Khachatryan/opera house, Gayhneh ballet/Ararat
25 note–various archeological treasures
10 note-David Sasunky monument/Ararat, railway station
coins luma and drams, 10, 20, 50 lum; 1,3,5, 10 dram
Nagorno Karabagh-1991
since 1960's agitating to join Armenia, voted to join Armenia again in 1991
       fought for independence and corridor to Armenia successfully, cease fire 1994, current blockade,
Turkey and Azerbaijan
       coins-horse, leaping antelope, a wildcat, a pheasant and St. Gregory the illuminator