Atlantis, Europa, and the First coins of Europe
Intro: The creation of Europe is usually dated to the end of the last Ice Age, depending on where you were in
Europe sometime between 10,000 and 8,000BC. Europe and the world emerged from the last ice-age (Younger
Dryas, that had lasted some 1500 years after a comet broke in pieces over North America, creating mass
extinctions of large mammals (dire wolves, camels, tree sloths, saber tooth tigers, etc. including the Clovis
Culture of humans.) Massive fires and explosive impacts caused dust and smoke clouds to cover most of the
Northern hemisphere.
During this time much of Eurasia, Scandinavia, and the British Isles were covered in a glacier as were the Alps
and Balkans. Most of the rest of Europe was tundra, only southern Greece and the Black Sear area having a
warm climate. In addition the Mediterranean Sea was merely a few separated fresh water lakes, the Black Sea
and even smaller fresh water lake. The Caspian and Aral Seas were much swollen by run off from the glaciers,
however. In Reno, the cool climate and mountain lakes extended throughout the Great Basin home to settlers
coming across the Bering Straits land bridge. Glaciers still existed in the Sierras and Yosemite. Recent floods
from ice water streaming from Canadian glaciers shaped the Midwest and Grand Canyon. Europe was reshaped
by several floods remembered in flood legends of Noah, Gilgamish, and Atlantis.
Atlantis: It is proposed that the city of Atlantis on land now underwater in the Eastern Mediterranean was
destroyed as the AtlanticOcean poured through the pillars of Heracles to form the Mediterranean around 10,000
BC. A deep salt water sea replaced the modest fresh water lakes, buried much of the warm fertile soil in Europe,
and destroyed the land bridges from Northern to Southern Mediterranean. When Solon asked the Egyptian
priest for their oldest historical knowledge, this was the story they told as related by Plato.
CLIP: Mediterranean Flood
Black Sea
: About 2,500 years later the Mediterranean poured into the Black Sea destroying early farms and
urban areas that may have been the source of dispersal of a common culture from Europe to the Middle East to
Egypt. A fresh water lake surrounded by the richest, warmest soil in Europe as well as innumerable estuaries,
the favorite of Neolithic peoples was changed to a brackish sea. About the same time rising waters from
retreating glaciers separated England from France, Ireland from England and overflowed a large island in the
North Sea. Europe had the basic contours we know today, a large peninsulastretching into northern waters from
the Asian land mass. They may have began the widespread shell monies.
CLIP: Black Sea Flood
Thera
: The last great European flood was the great tsunami of Thera in 1450BC that destroyed much of the
coastal areas in Greece, Asia Minor, Crete and Cyprus. The tsunami may also have parted the Red Sea for
Moses as well as Thera providing the pillar of smoke and fire that guided the Jews through the Wilderness. In the
immediate area the Minoan, Hittite, and Mycenaean cultures were overwhelmed, losing their great navies,
coastal cities, and trading empires. They were quickly conquered by the more war-like Mycenaean Greeks. The
Greeks adopted much of Minoan culture and gods and hence are considered the first European civilization–from
civis meaning urban or city dwellers. Coinage consisted of lumps and plates of metal, and would do so until
about 600BC when coins were invented
CLIP-Reenactment
CLIP-extent of flood.
Noah’s Flood?
: Which flood was Noah’s flood? The Black Sea flood fits the time, but so far is considered the
least devastating of the three, although it may be that the dispersal of the nations represented by Noah’s sons
Shem, Ham, and Japheth has some historical underpinnings.  And of course, if it rained for 40 days and nights
and the “the fountain of the deep broken up” (Gn 7:11) refer to additional glacial flood waters sweeping across
the land, perhaps emptying the swollen Caspian and Aral Seas.....Well, you got the whole civilized world
involved, for sure.
CLIP: Noah’s flood
Intro slides
: It was Atlantis, not Noah that is the oldest myth of Europe. Plato records Solon’s story of asking an
venerable Egyptian priest for his oldest historical knowledge-- Atlantis being destroyed in a great flood. Atlantis
ruled by the one God Zeus, also known as the Bull of the Sea. The Egyptians claim to have been a kingdom
before and after the formation of the Mediterranean, but the Mycenaean Greeks claimed variously to have
traveled from the Pillars of Heracles and the Black Sea. Thus, the Bull of the Sea may claim the Atlantic, Black ,
or Mediterranean Sea.
Slides 1: Noah?
2: Flood–Michelangelo
3: Atlantis?
4: Flooded
5: Underwater
6. Eastern Mediterranean showing Atlantid
7. Black Sea
8. Detail
9. Dispersion of people
10. Sumerian shell money c. 3500BC
11 Cowrie shell money
12. Thera volcano
13. island---------------------PAUSE





















Tom Stone,
Zeus, p.22-

The famous roar of the bull was doubtless from the rush of wind head throughout the ancient Greek and Minoan
world from Mount Thera eruption.
Slides        13: Minoans-map
           14: Minoan women
           15: ships (Santorini)
           16. bull games
           17. minotaur
           18: The Great Mother (archaic)
           19. The Great Mother Late----PAUSE
The Great Mother has snakes in her hand and is sometimes portrayed as mother of all the animals, with a minor
male consort (Zeus) and even with a tree. Yes, an apple tree. There is little doubt that she is the serpent in the
tree in the Garden of Eden opposed both by the early Hebrews and Mycenaean Greek who proclaimed a male
god. In Minoan Crete the bull was a minor deity.  Yahweh could be depicted as a bull as Aaron tried at Mount
Sinai, or at least the bull was his throne and favorite sacrifice.
Slide                   20: Oxhide money, 1250BC
                  21: Shekels, Holyland c.1700BC-----------------PAUSE
The Phoenicians variously known as Canaanites, Sea Peoples, Philistines, and Hyksos conquered the
Mycenaean Greeks, Crete, Hittites, and even Egyptians as well as the rest of the Mediterranean as Moses
wandered in the desert. They created deep sea sailing, trading as far as Britain for tin, Western Africa, and even
around Africa to India and India (and China) via the Red Sea. They invented writing and the alphabet the Greeks
and est of the Mediterranean world would use in some form. They were famous for their trading goods–metals,
wine, olive oil, slaves, and Tyrian people. They, however, continued to worhsip the Great Mother as Astarte with
orgies and human sacrifice.
      20 The Phoenicians-map Mediterranean
      21 map Eastern Mediterranean
      22 ship
      23 coin with sea monster and ship
      24 script Phoenician
      25 Tyrian purple
      26 coin-Astarte 3rd- 2nd BC as Tyche, Fortuna
      PAUSE
EUROPA-This brings us to the tale of Europa from which Europe gets its name. It is the subordination of the
Great Mother to the Bull of the Sea. The Origin of Europe in myth tells the tale Zeus the Bull of the Sea and the
Phoenician princess Europa. Her lineage is also variously traced to Oceanus, Tethys, and Poseidon i.e the
Atlantic, Black, and Mediterranean Seas.
Slides      30–Europa and maidens gambol with white bull-Simon Vouet 1640
      31- Temple, Bull, Sidon, 10AD
                 32-Europa leave temple behind, modern
      33-Head of Bull, Europa–Gortnya, Crete, 430BC
      34-same
      35-Europa on white bull, Maarten de Vos, c.1590
      36-E. on bull, lion in square, Asia minor 4th BC
      37-Europa on shoe, Marie Menard, 1915
      38-Europa and maidens, Cesar Everdingen, 19th C
      39-Further out to sea
      40-Head of Zeus/Europa on bull, Gortnya, 250BC
      41-Europa, maidens rescue-Giuseppe Cesari, c.1600
      42-Antiochus IV/Europa on Bull-Sidon-175-164BC                
      43-Artemis/Artemis Tauropolos Amphipolis 168-149
      44-Kylix 350BC
      45- Augustus/ Tauropolos Amphipolis 14BC-37AD
      46-Europa at sea-Guido Reni-1660s
      47-Zeus/Europa, L.Volteius, 81BC
      48- Europa on bull with veil above
      49-Tiberius/Artemis Taurpolos-14-37AD
      50-Europa on bull Roman  mosaic
      51- Claudius/Tauropolos, Amphipolis 1st AD
      52- Europa at sea with dolphins-John Cousin, 1550
      53-L. Valerius Ascilius, Zeus/Europa ob bull-45BC
      54-Europan on bull Greek Vase, 480BC
      55-Europa plane tree eagle/bull looks back, Gortyna, Crete, 300BC
      56- Plane tree
      57-Europa sits plane tree/bull, Gortyna, Crete, 300BC
      58-Europa sits with eagle/on bull,Gortyna,350-221BC
      59-Guido Reni, 1892, Europa on bull
      60-Europa sits plane tree/bull, Gortyna, Crete, 300BC
      61- Cameo-Victorian, Hebe and eagle
      62- Europa and Eagle, Gortnya 430BC
      63-Roman Mosaic-3rd AD, Ganymede and Eagle
      62- Europa and Eagle, as above
      63-Europa enters Knososs-Pompei painting 1st AD
      64-Europa on bull, maze-Knosoos, Crete, 220BC
Zeus took the form of a great white bull and behaved tamely with Europa and her maidens. She dared to
bestride him and he immediately dashed to the sea, swimming to Crete. He then ravished her as both bull and
eagle under a plane tree. She bore three sons: Minos, Rhadamanthus, and Sarpedon, who besides being
Minoan kings became judges of the underworld after they died.
Origin of First European Coinage
Intro
: European coinage began in Sardis, Lydia by King Croesus, who was the first to refine gold and silver,
make a series of denominations,  and place images on coins a little before 600BC. His father and grandfather
had used lumps of electrum (natural mixture of gold and silver), some with marks. Lumps, bars, and ox hides of
metal had been current for a thousand year and more.  
Slides      67: map Sardis Lydia
              68: Croesus on pyre–PAUSE
Croesus was the richest man on earth. Herodotus tells of Solon meeting him, being shown his vast wealth, then
asked was he not the happiest man on earth. Solon told tales of old men dying leaving a happy family, rich in
honor after defending their homeland, frustrating Croesus and finally forcing Solon to say that one can not tell
who is happiest until they die. Shortly afterwards defeated by Cyrus Persia, he is placed on a pyre to be
destroyed, but this tale saves hi, and he becomes an honored advisor to Cyrus.
Slides      69 Croesus mint
      70 Croesus coins and denominations
      71 Croesus stater
Coins first minted in Lydia spread to Persia, Ionian Greeks, Cyprus, then the Island of Aegina off Greece, which
can be considered the first European coins.
Slides       72- Persian Empire map
      72-Gold daric
      73 silver stater
      74 silver stater
      75- Cyprus Map
      76- detail map with ancient cities
77-silver stater Lapethos, Cypros, 410BC-wounded giant, Heracles with bow in lion’s skin
      78-silver stater, lion, Marion , Cyprus c.520BC
      79 Ionia Map
      80-gold stater Heracles head Ionia uncertain, c.500BC
      77-silver stater female head uncertain Ionia 450BC
      78-electrum stater- seal?, Phokaia, Ionia, 500BC
      83-map of Aegina
      84- turtle stater, 550BC
      85- turtle stater, 480BC
      86- turtle stater, 456-431BC
Aegina staters were replaced by the Athenian tetradrachms when Athens destroyed its commercial rival in
458BC.
      87-map of Athens
      88-Athens tetradrachm-Athena/Owl, 500-480BC
      89-Athens tetradrachm-Athena/Owl, c. 480BC
      90-Athens tetradrachm-Athena/Owl, c. 430BC
      91- Modern Coinage
      92-10 Euro Spain, silver, 2003
           93-detail
      93-Greece, Europa on bull
      93- Andorra, 10 euros 2 Euro
      94- European Economic Community, 1 ecu
      95-10 euro gold, France/coins of European union
           96 1 ecu Spain, Europa on bull
           97 2 Euro Greece, bimetalic 2002
      98-50 cents copper nickle Cyprus, 1994
      99 diobol, Timocharis, Marion, Cyprus, c350BC
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