Constantine: Propaganda in Bronze
1. Film Clip: Constantine and the Cross
A. Diocletian and Maximius retire, Constantius and Galerius move up with Severus and Licinius under them re-spectively.
B. Constantine goes to father and battle, just as he is killed, revealed his mother is a Christian, proclaimed Emperor at York
C. July 25, 306 and marches on Rome.
2. Title with Constantine head found at York.
3. Map of Roman Empire
4. Silver medallion with horse
5. Gold solidus with halo (Divus, not saint)
6. Head of colossal statue found at Rome (as Apollo or Sol)
7. Bare head
8-16 Helmet heads
17. Consular robes with mappa and scepter.
18. Diademed and scepter.
20. Pannonian cap.
22. Veiled at death.
23. Solidus in prayer.
24. Bronze in prayer.
25. Gods of Olympus.
26. Zeus or Jupiter, Jove.
27. Iovi ConservatoriAug-To Jupiter the Savior of our Emperor-Jupiter stands nude with eagle and Nike.
28. and captive.
29. and palm of victory.
30. and victory wreath.
31. Hercules-statue with club
32. On vase wrestling Nemean lion.
33. Hercules with club–HerculiVictori-to Hercules, the victor.
34. Hercules wrestling lion-HerculiConservatoriCaes-To Hercules the Savior of our Caesar
35. Apollo in Chariot
36. Head of Sol, Apollo-SolInvictoComiti-In honor of the unconquered sun, the companion of the Emperor.
37. standing nude with orb right.
38. standing in robe with flail.
39. standing nude with orb left.
40. Comiti Aug-Companion of the emperor-standing nude with orb left
42. Head of Mars-MartiConservatori-To Mars, Savior of our Emperor
43. Mars armored standing with spear and shield.
44. Mars armored walking with spear and shield-PepertuaVirtus-Eternal Strength
45. Nude walking with spear and shield-MartiPatriPropugnatori-To Mars the defending father.
46. Nude walking with spear and shield-VirtusAugEtCaes-The Valor of our emperor and caesar
47. Standing armored, spear and shield-MartiPatriPropugnatori-To Mars the defending father
48. Nike or Victory
49. Victory walking left-VictoriaAugg-Victory of our Emperors
50. Victory on prow with shield
51. Victory on prow with shield and X-P
52. 2 Victories placing Vows (Vot PR) to the People of Rome shield on altar-VictoriaLaetaePrincPerp-Joyous victory to
the eternal Prince
53. altar with diamond
54. altar with X
55. altar with cross (?)
56. Victory walks with trophy and palm, captive before-SarmatiaDevicta-Sarmatia conquered.
57. with different trophy.
58. Victory sits with trophy and palm, captive before-ConstantinanaDafne-Dafne (now) Constantine’s
59. Army or Exercitus
60. Soldier with spear and shield standing-VirtusExercitus-Power of the Army
61. Soldier with spear and javelins.
62. Gloria Exercitus-Glory of the Army
63. 2 soldiers with one standard.
64. 2 soldiers with labarum
65. 2 victories with vexillum
66. 2 soldiers with 2 labarums
67. 1 soldier with 2 standards-Concordia Militum-Harmony with the soldiers
68. 3 standards-SPQROptimoPrincipi-The Senate and People of Rome to the Best of Princes
69. 2 captives below vexillum-VirtusExercitum-Power of the Army
70. 2 soldiers with X-P labarum-GloriaExercitum-Glory of the Army
71. Campgate, 2 turrets, door open-ProvidentiaeAug-(In Honor of) the Foresight of the Emperor
72. Campgate, 4 turrets, door closed-VirtusAug-Power of the Emperor
73. 3 turrets, door open-ProvidentiaeAug-(In Honor of) the Foresight of the Emperor
74. Campgate, 4 turrets, door open-VirtusAug-Power of the Emperor
75. 2 turrets, door open, star-ProvidentiaeAug-(In Honor of) the Foresight of the Emperor
76. with victory wreath
77. large star, sun(?)
78. Sol on defensive works-VirtusAug-Power of the Emperor
79. Tetrarchy (Pannonian hats)
80. Genius with 2 lars, snake below.
81. Constantine with 2 standards-PrincipiIuventutus-In honor of the Prince of Youth
82. Genius standing with patera and cornucopia, GenioCaesaris-to the Spirit of the Caesars
83. different pose
84. Genius standing with patera, altar and cornucopia, GenioAugusti-to the Spirit of the Emperors
85. without altar
86. GenioFilAug-To the spirit of the Sons of the Emperor
87. GenioImperator-to the spirit of the Emperor
88. Concordia with scepter-Concordia Imperii-Harmony of the Empire
89. Genius stands with patera-BonoGenioPiiImperatoris-To the good guardian spirit of the pius Emperor.
90. Genio Augg Et Caesarun-To the spirit of our Emperors and Caesars
91. Moneta stands with scales and cornucopia-SacMonUrbAugEtCaesNostr-The sacred money of the city of our Augusti
92. Genius stands with patera-GenioRomanorum-The Genius of the Romans
93. GenioPopRom-Genius of the Roman People
95. Urbs Rom and wolf with Romulus and Remus, laurel above, 2 stars
96. Helmeted Rome-Urbs Rom-City of Rome
97. Wolf with Romulus and Remus, laurel above, 2 stars
98. Wolf without laurel
99. Helmeted Rom-PopRom-People of Rome
100. Bare head with cornucopia-PopRomanum, Star
101. Pop Rom with soldier standing PR
102. Pax standing PR
103. Rome seated with Nike and shield-PerperuitasAugg-The perpetuity of the Emperors
104. Gloria Romanorum-Glory of the Romans
105. RomaeRestitutae-To the restored Rome
106. RomaeAeternae-Eternal Rome
107. Gloria Romanorum-Glory of the Romans-different design
108. Rome seated in temple-ConserUrbSuae-In honor of the savior of the city
110. Constantine giving Nike to seated Rome-RecuperatorUrbisSuae-To the restorer of our city
113. Hagia Sophia
114. silver medallion-Constantinople seated-DNConstantiniMaxAugusti-To our Lord, Constantine, the Greatest Emperor
115. Helmeted Constantinople (female) with Victory on prow.
116. Constantinopoli with X-P and Victory
117. Helmeted Constantinopoli
118. Victory on prow
119. PopRomanorun with Danube bridge
120. Danube bridge
121. Carthage in temple-ConservatorKartSuae-To the Savior of our Carthage.
122. Carthage standing-SalvisAugEtCaesFelKart-Carthage is happy that the emperors and caesars are safe
123. Head of Constantine–whats most important, HIMSELF! And his family
124. Constantine’s Arch
125. Constantinus Aug-Emperor Constantine
126. Constantine standing with Nike-VirtusConstantiniAug-The Power of Emperor Constantine.
127. Family Tree
128. Constantius veiled, Eagle over tomb
129. Helena/ Pax standing- Peace
130. Theodora- Piety nursing child
131. Maximianus (father-in-law)- veiled enthroned-RequiesOptimorumMeritorum-The Well merited rest of the best.
132. Fausta-Security standing- SecuritasRepublica
133. Crispus and Constantine II
134. Claudius II (imaginary ancestor) -veiled enthroned-RequiesOptimorumMeritorum-The Well merited rest of the best.
136. Constantine on horse-AdventisAug-The arrival of our Emperor.
138. Constantine on horse-SpesPublic-Hope of the Public
139. Vexillum with X-P and snake (very rare)-Hope of the Public
141. Security resting on pillar-SecuritasAugg-Security of the Emperors
142. Solidus-Emperor before trophy-SecuritasPerpetuae-Eternal Security of the emperor
144. Sol stands with orb-ClaritasReipublicae-Reknown of the state
146. Altar with orb-BeataTranquilitas-Blessed Tranquility
147. Rome seated-FelicitasAugg-Happiness of the Emperors
149. Owl on Altar with scepter-SapientPrincip-Wisdom of the Prince
151-Peace stands with olive branch and standard-PaciPerpet-Eternal Peace
152. Constantine dragging captive by hair-FundatPacis-To the founder of Peace
154. Liberty-Arch-Constantine distributing money and gifts.
155. Victory on galley with 2 wreaths-LibertasPublica-PublicLiberty
156. Constantine mounted, hunting, LiberatorOrbis-To the liberator of the world
158. Votis X
159. Votis XV Fel XX
160. Vot XX-Constantini Augusti
161. same different design-plain
162. with 2 palms
163. Vot XX on altar with orb
164. Vot XX Mult XXX-plain
165. in wreath
166. in different wreath
167. Vot XXX in wreath
169. Roman deification OR
171. Veiled Constantine, C. in chariot, hand of God reaching down.
174. Veiled head, veiled standing-VNMR-Venerated memory
175. Justice stands with scales-IustVenerMemor-It is just for his memory to be venerated.
176. Head veiled, standing with scepter-AeternaPietas-Eternal Piety
177. Vision of the Cross
178. Hand pointing to heaven (also foot of colossal statue)
179. Donation of Constantine.
180 Lateran palace outside-given to pope of Rome
182. Nicene Creed
Here are all the reverses of Constantine the Great in bronze. As coins were the newspapers
of their day. What is the first Christian emperor trying to tell us?