The Other Coin: Coins of India, part 3

After the fragmentation of the Gupta Empite in the 8th century AD, Muslim raids from
Persia escalated to conquering Pakistan and Afghanistan. Raids of plunder and slaughter
continued from these two countries into India until the Dehli Sultanate was established in
1206. Hindu rebellions and mass armies (with 1000s of elephants, and 100,000s of
men)  continued until 1556 when Akbar the Great (1556-1605) finally defeated the last
great Hindu Army of the South. India was divided into a Muslim North and a Hindu
South. Islam (meaning submit, not peace) insisted on conversion destroying temples
(Hindu, Bhudhist, Jain, and Sikh) and slaughtering entire populations that refused to
covert. Arabic coinage in gold, silver, and copper usually contain a toughra (Arabic
prayer) on one side and the name of ruler,mint, and date of issue or reign. Some Arabic
coins are biligual with Sanskrit, and a few continue Hindu gods on their coins. The
Southern Hindu states issued a wide variety of coins, usually with Hindu and Hindu gods.
Before the Arabic conquest was complete, European nations had already begun to
colonize India with Vasco Da Gama of Portugal arriving in 1498. Spain, France,
Denmark, and Netherlands all established colonies, although Spain did not mint cois in
India. The British under the East India Company began colonizing in 1618 and 200 years
later the British monarch became the Emperor of India until India gained independence in
1949. There are some 500 coin issuing entities during this period and the coins are
relatively inexpensive, accessible on e-bay, which works with e-bay in India, so you can
buy coins direct from India. The coins include the smallest gold and silver coins of 3-5
mm called fanams.

There are excellent websites that include--
Coins of Asia, http://www.grifterrec.com/coins/india/ancientindia.html,
Nupam's India coins,  http://www.nupam.com
and Prabhu's Indian coins, /http://prabhu.50g.com/.

Numismatically yours, David Elliott
Coin of Akbar the Great
Vijayanagara coin of S. India
Danish India coin